U.S. History Boomers to Millennials Fourteenth Edition

U.S. History Boomers to Millennials

Fourteenth Edition

 

Chapter

 

American Destiny Narrative of a Nation

 

American Destiny: Narrative of a Nation, Fourth Edition Mark C. Carnes • John A. Garraty

 

From Boomers

 

to Millennials

 

31

 

From Boomers to Millennials

 

The New Immigration

The Emergence of Modern Feminism

Roe v. Wade

Conservative Counterattack

The Rise of Gay and Lesbian Rights

AIDS

Publicly Gay

Crime and Punishment

Crack and Urban Gangs

From Boomers to Millennials

 

Violence and Popular Culture

From Main Street to Mall to Internet

From Community to Facebook

Greying of the Boomers

The New Immigration

 

The New Immigration

 

Immigration is a global phenomenon that has transformed the United States in the past forty years

Since 1924, immigration to the United States had been governed by a quota system that ensured continuation of the nation’s existing ethnic patterns

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Immigration Act of 1965 eliminated the old system

Gave preference to immigrants with specialized job skills and education

Allowed family members to rejoin those who had immigrated earlier

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

In 1986, Congress:

Offered amnesty to illegal immigrants who had long lived in the United States

Penalized employers who hired illegal immigrants in the future

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Many persons legalized their status under the new law, but the influx of illegal immigrants continued

Together, these laws enabled more than 25 million to immigrate to the United States from 1970 to 2000

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Immigration Patterns

Asians, many of whom possessed skills in high-tech fields, benefited most from the new system

9 million Asians immigrated to the United States during these years—most from China, South Korea, India, Pakistan, and the Philippines

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Immigration Patterns

1970–2000: the largest number of immigrants were Latinos, sometimes called Hispanics (16 million)

By 2000, the Latino population of the United States (35 million) for the first time exceeded African Americans (34 million)

Immigration patterns were more complex than the aggregate data suggest

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Whites left for the suburbs and businesses relocated to the malls

Immigrants moved into cities and established businesses downtown

Los Angeles: Korea Town, Japan Town, the Latino barrio, South Central

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Politics

New immigrants also became a significant political force

Latinos elected mayors in Los Angeles, Miami, Denver, and San Antonio

César Chávez, a pivotal figure in the history of Mexican Americans (Chicanos), successfully brought tens of thousands of Mexicans into his United Farm Workers union

Dolores Huerta and César Chávez are framed by photographs of Robert Kennedy and Mohandas Gandhi

 

Dolores Huerta and César Chávez, leaders of the United Farm Workers, discuss their 1968 strike of grape pickers. They are framed by photographs of Robert Kennedy, campaigning for the Democratic nomination for president, and Mohandas Gandhi, leader of the non-violent protest movement that won independence for India in 1947.

 

*

 

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Politics

Chavez led strikes and boycotts to force wage concessions from growers in California, Texas, and the Southwest

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Concern Over Immigration

1992: Republican presidential candidate Patrick Buchanan warned that the migration of “millions of illegal aliens a year” from Mexico constituted “the greatest invasion” the nation had ever witnessed

About 1/3 of the Chicanos in the United States had arrived illegally, usually by slipping across the long U.S. border with Mexico

Latino poverty rate was twice the national average

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Concern Over Immigration

1994: California passed Proposition 187, which made illegals ineligible for social services, public education, and nonemergency medical services

U.S. Supreme Court struck the law down

Loose immigration policies suppressed wage rates; often illegal immigrants were recruited as strike breakers

The New Immigration (cont’d)

 

Concern Over Immigration

Labor leaders blamed the post-1965 influx of immigrants for decline in union memberships

In Who Are We? (2004), Harvard political scientist Samuel P. Huntington warned the massive infusion of Latinos could “divide the United States into two peoples, two cultures, and two languages”

Stanley (Ann) Dunham with her son, Barack Obama, age two.

 

Stanley (Ann) Dunham with her son, Barack Obama, age two.

 

*

 

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism

 

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism

 

During the “Baby Boom” era after WWII, themes in popular culture reinforced the notion of women centered on family dynamics within the home and motherhood

Dr. Benjamin Spock’s Common Sense Guide to Baby and Child Care

Psychologist Marynia Farnham

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

TV picked up on this theme as well:

Father Knows Best

The Honeymooners

I Love Lucy

Reality of the postwar woman was more complicated

Economic expansion generated many new jobs

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

Women in high demand because they would work for lower wages than men

1940: Only 1 in 4 civilian employees was female, 1/3 of them married

Women became aware that men were paid more, had better opportunities for advancement

Paid Workforce, 1950-2005, by Gender

 

Paid Workforce, 1950-2005, by Gender

 

The number (and percentage) of wage-earning women increased rapidly after 1960. In 1950, for example, fewer than one-third of the paid work force consisted of women; by 2006, the proportion had increased to nearly half.

 

*

 

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

Women noticed, too, that minorities had improved their situations by fighting publicly

Increasingly activists for women’s rights adopted similar strategies; they were the founders of the modern women’s liberation movement

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

Betty Friedan: Activist journalist in the 1930s–1940s, shifted to gender issues in later decades

In The Feminine Mystique (1963), Friedan argued that advertisers, popular magazines, and other “authorities” brainwashed women into thinking that they could thrive only at home

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

Betty Friedan: Activist journalist in the 1930s–1940s, shifted to gender issues in later decades

Friedan assumed that if women acted with determination, employers would recognize their abilities and stop discriminating against them

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

1964: Sen. Howard Smith (VA) proposed that women be protected from discrimination

Led to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

1966: Friedan and other feminists founded the National Organization for Women (NOW)

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

1967: NOW came out for:

Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution

Changes in divorce laws

Legalization of abortion

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

1971: House of Representatives approved the ERA and the Senate followed the next year

By the end of 1972, 22 states on record to ratify the amendment

Feminist activists soon turned to another major goal: legalization of abortion

In 1970, Hawaii became first state to repeal its criminal abortion statute

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

Later that year, another battle was waged in New York

Pitted feminists, liberals, medical establishment vs. conservatives and Roman Catholic Church

Liberal state assembly repealed its antiabortion law by only 1 vote

Feminists regarded this as a crucial but sobering victory

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

National Organization for Women (NOW)

An organization, founded in 1966 by Betty Friedan and other feminists, to promote equal rights for women, changes in divorce laws, and legalization of abortion.

The Emergence of

Modern Feminism (cont’d)

 

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

A proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sex. Although first proposed in 1923, the amendment was not passed by Congress until 1972; but the ratification movement fell short and the ERA was not added to the Constitution.

Roe v. Wade

 

State Laws on Abortion prior to Roe v. Wade (1973)

 

State Laws on Abortion prior to Roe v. Wade (1973)

 

Prior to Roe v. Wade, only Hawaii, Alaska, and New York had legalized abortion. Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and New Hampshire prohibited all abortions, while every other state allowed abortions only in cases of rape or incest or to preserve the life of the woman.

 

*

 

Roe v. Wade

 

Key factor was new concept in constitutional law: “right to privacy”

Griswold v. Connecticut: The Supreme Court struck down a Connecticut statute, contending it violated “right to privacy”

Roe v. Wade (cont’d)

 

Since no such term appears in Constitution, the Court held other constitutional provisions gave “umbrella” of privacy-related rights that protected people from unwarranted intrusions by the state

1969: Norma McCorvey asked her doctor for an abortion and was refused

Roe v. Wade (cont’d)

 

McCorvey’s lawyer encouraged her to challenge the law

Using pseudonym “Jane Roe” she and her lawyer filed suit

Roe v. Wade (cont’d)

 

In 1973, Supreme Court rendered decision in Roe v. Wade:

Fetus did not have a “right to life” until final 3 months of pregnancy, when it could likely survive without the mother

Until then, the mother’s right to “privacy” took precedence

State could not prevent a woman from having an abortion during the first 6 months of pregnancy

Roe v. Wade (cont’d)

 

Roe v. Wade resulted in a rapid expansion of abortion facilities

From 1973 to 1980, the number of abortions performed annually increased from 745,000 to 1.5 million

Conservative Counterattack

 

Conservative Counterattack

 

Roe v. Wade decision energized grassroots conservative movement against abortion

Supported by Catholic Church, the Mormons, and Protestant groups (Moral Majority)

Right-to-life movement endorsed presidential campaigns of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush

Conservative Counterattack (cont’d)

 

In Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) and Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992), Supreme Court allowed states to impose certain restrictions on abortion

Conservatives were more successful in contesting the ERA

Conservative Counterattack (cont’d)

 

1973: Phyllis Schlafly spearheaded nationwide campaign against ratification of ERA

She argued that it would:

Subject young women to the military draft

Deprive divorced women of alimony and child custody

Make married women legally responsible for providing 50% of household income

Phyllis Schlafly drew much of her support from working-class women who were left vulnerable by the recession after 1973.

 

Phyllis Schlafly drew much of her support from working-class women who were left vulnerable by the recession after 1973.

 

*

 

Conservative Counterattack (cont’d)

 

Schlafly’s efforts struck a chord—the pro-ERA campaign lost momentum and stalled, falling 3 states short

By 1980, ERA was dead

The Rise of Gay and

Lesbian Rights

 

The Rise of Gay and

Lesbian Rights

 

“Minority rights” rhetoric and example of activists in other movements encouraged gay rights activists to proceed along similar lines

1969: New York City police raided the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village and arrested occupants for “solicitation” of illegal sexual acts

The Rise of Gay and

Lesbian Rights (cont’d)

 

Crowds outside began fighting back, a riot ensued, police retreated, and event became turning point

The Rise of Gay and

Lesbian Rights (cont’d)

 

Gay activists embarked on numerous campaigns to eliminate discrimination

Challenged the American Psychiatric Association’s stance that homosexuality was a mental illness

Filed suits to eliminate discrimination against gays in education, housing, education, and employment

Activists such as Harvey Milk ran openly for public office

Harvey Milk was the first openly gay candidate to be elected to office in California.

 

Harvey Milk was the first openly gay candidate to be elected to office in California.

 

*

 

AIDS

 

AIDS

 

1981: Centers for Disease Control (CDC) alerted American health officials to an outbreak of rare bacterial infection in Los Angeles

Distinctive because this particular infection, usually found in infants or older people with fragile immune systems, had struck five healthy young men—all were homosexuals, and all died from it

AIDS (cont’d)

 

By 1982, the CDC called this new disease acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

AIDS (cont’d)

 

The CDC learned that AIDS was caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lethal virus that destroys the body’s defenses against infection, making victims susceptible to many diseases

HIV spreads when an infected person’s body fluids come in contact with someone else’s

In this electron microscopic photograph

 

In this electron microscopic photograph, two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells, in different stages of budding, are emerging from an infected T-lymphocyte human blood cell (pink). The HIV cell that has almost broken free includes RNA (green—the cell’s genetic code) and it will reinfect other T-cells. T-cells are part of the body’s immune system.

 

*

 

AIDS (cont’d)

 

By end of 1982, CDC documented 900 cases of AIDS; the disease was increasing exponentially

Soon HIV contaminated a few of the nation’s blood banks; some recipients of transfusions came down with AIDS

AIDS (cont’d)

 

1985: Congress approved Reagan’s call for substantial increase in AIDS funding

Nearly 21,000 Americans had died; by 1999, the total number of AIDS-related deaths would reach 400,000

AIDS epidemic affected public policy and private behavior

Nationwide educational campaign urged “safe” sex

AIDS (cont’d)

 

Gay and lesbian organizations continued to fight for social acceptance and legal rights

AIDS (cont’d)

 

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

A deadly, and very often sexually transmitted disease that emerged in the 1980s and that at first spread chiefly among injection drug users and gay male populations, but soon affected all communities.

AIDS (cont’d)

 

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

The disease is a complex of deadly pathologies resulting from infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By 2000, AIDS deaths in the United States had surpassed 40,000.

AIDS (cont’d)

 

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

A virus, usually spread through sexual contact, that attacks the immune system, sometimes fatally. HIV, which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), first appeared in the United States in 1980.

Publicly Gay

 

Publicly Gay

 

In 1992, President Bill Clinton promised to end the ban on gays and lesbians in the armed services

Amid objections, Clinton settled for “don’t ask, don’t tell” policy

In 2010, Congress voted to openly admit gays and lesbians to the armed forces

Another long-term objective for gay activists was same-sex marriage

Publicly Gay (cont’d)

 

In 2006, conservatives proposed amendment to the Constitution that would define marriage as “a union between a man and a woman”—fell just short of passage in Senate

2000: Vermont became first state to recognize same-sex civil unions

Publicly Gay (cont’d)

 

2004: Massachusetts was first state to recognize same-sex marriage; within the next five years, a half dozen states passed similar laws

Table 31.1 Gender Activist Victories and Conservative Responses

 

Table 31.1

 

Gender Activist Victories and Conservative Responses

 

*

 

Crime and Punishment

 

Crime and Punishment

 

During the late 1960s, antiwar protests closed down college campuses and race riots ravaged cities and violent crime increased

Many called for restoration of “law and order”

Crime and Punishment (cont’d)

 

During the 1970s and 1980s, conservatives succeeded in implementing many of the goals of the “law and order” movement

Elected officials who:

Passed tougher laws

Hired more police

Built additional prisons

Crime and Punishment (cont’d)

 

Shift toward capital punishment:

Legislators rewrote statutes to accommodate prior Supreme Court rulings

1976: Supreme Court upheld these laws and capital punishment resumed

Since then, over 1000 convicts executed

Crime and Punishment (cont’d)

 

Tougher sentences made it more difficult for prisoners to obtain parole

1973: New York State passed laws mandating harsh sentences for repeat drug offenders

1977: California replaced parole system with mandatory sentencing, which denied convicts the prospect of early release

Nationwide, proportion of convicts serving long, mandatory sentences increased sharply

Crime and Punishment (cont’d)

 

Huge, costly increase in prison population came as a result

Narcotics policemen in Bridgeport, Connecticut, arrest a suspect

 

Narcotics policemen in Bridgeport, Connecticut, arrest a suspect for selling crack near housing projects in 1994.

 

*

 

Crack and Urban Gangs

 

Crack and Urban Gangs

 

Multiple factors intensified problem of violent crime

One was a shift in drug use

In 1980s, growers of coca leaves in Peru and Bolivia greatly expanded production

Drug traffickers in Colombia devised sophisticated systems to transport cocaine to the United States

Price of cocaine dropped from $120 an ounce in 1981 to $50 in 1988

Crack and Urban Gangs (cont’d)

 

More important was proliferation of cocaine-based compound called “crack”

Crack was sold in $10 vials

Many users found it gave intense spasm of pleasure that overrode all other desires

Lucrative crack trade led to bitter turf wars in the inner cities

Crack and Urban Gangs (cont’d)

 

More than 150,000 young people belonged to 1,000 gangs

In 1985, before crack had seized hold of the inner city, there were 147 murders in Washington, D.C.; in 1991, figure skyrocketed to 482

Black-on-black murder became major cause of death for African Americans in their 20s

Crack and Urban Gangs (cont’d)

 

By 2010, 30% of African American men in their 20s were in prison, or on probation or parole

Violence and Popular Culture

 

Violence and Popular Culture

 

Violence soared in pop culture, particularly movies

Three movies released during the late 1980s—Robocop, Die Hard, and Rambo III—each produced a death tally of 60 or more, nearly 1 every 2 minutes

Trend culminated in Natural Born Killers (1994)

Violence and Popular Culture (cont’d)

 

TV imitated movies as networks crammed violent crime shows into prime time

1991: Survey found that by age 18, the average viewer had witnessed some 40,000 murders on TV

Violence and Popular Culture (cont’d)

 

Pop Music

Pop music also acquired a new edge

1981: Warner Brothers launched MTV; its surreal images, disjointed editing, and frenzied music set a new standard

In 1988, the American Academy of Pediatrics expressed concern that teenagers were spending 2 hours a day watching rock videos

Over 1/2 featured violence and 3/4 contained sexually suggestive material

Violence and Popular Culture (cont’d)

 

Rap

A new sound called “rap” emerged from the ghetto and quickly spread beyond black audiences

“Cop Killer” and “Illegal Search” contributed to charge that rap condoned violence and crime

Several major rappers were murdered, and others ran afoul of the law

Violence and Popular Culture (cont’d)

 

Rap

For those who had grown up in ghettos, the culture of violence seemed to legitimate the meanness of everyday life

Violence and Popular Culture (cont’d)

 

Violence and criminality became so much a part of popular culture, and popular culture of adolescent life, that some retreated wholly to imaginative worlds conjured by movies, video and computer games, TV, and pop music

From Main Street to Mall to Internet

 

From Main Street to Mall to Internet

 

Thirty years after the civil rights movement targeted them, many downtown business districts had been all but abandoned, giving way to the transformative growth of American suburbs

Among the many possible reasons given:

Inner-city protests and the desegregation of city schools caused many whites to flee

The rise in crime in the late 1960s

Growth of Suburban St. Louis, 1950–1960

 

Racial Shifts in St. Louis During the 1950s

 

During the 1950s, the white population of St. Louis declined by more than 200,000, while the black population increased by 100,000. Much of the central core was almost entirely black.

 

*

 

Growth of Suburban St. Louis, 1950–1960

 

Growth of Suburban St. Louis, 1950–1960

 

During the 1950s, the suburban townships in St. Louis county west of the city gained nearly 300,000 people, an increase of 73 percent. More than 99 percent of the suburban residents were white.

 

*

 

From Main Street to Mall to Internet (cont’d)

 

Among the many possible reasons given:

Postwar federal policies played a major role in transforming cities and giving rise to the suburbs

The G.I. Bill of 1946 offered veterans cheap home mortgages

Real estate developers bought huge tracts of land and built inexpensive houses designed for veterans

From Main Street to Mall to Internet (cont’d)

 

Among the many possible reasons given:

Postwar lending policies of the Federal Housing Authority

Eisenhower’s decision to pump money into highway construction

From Main Street to Mall to Internet (cont’d)

 

Retailers followed consumers to the suburbs, leading to the development of shopping malls

In 1946 there were only eight shopping malls in the nation; by 1972, over 13,000

From Main Street to Mall to Internet (cont’d)

 

By the 1980s, retailers such as Wal-Mart built “big box” stores

Then came the Internet—online shopping represented a major shift for the consumer

Within a half century, shopping had not only become more private, but it also was less social

From Main Street to Mall to Internet (cont’d)

 

Similar shifts from public to private have characterized many other daily activities

Banking reduced to transaction with a machine

Personal interaction with service sector jobs had disappeared: milkmen, door-to-door salespeople, “service station” attendants, bakery owners and candy makers, etc.

From Main Street to Mall to Internet (cont’d)

 

With the advent of the Internet and improved software, many people became their own travel agent, tax preparer, financial adviser, grocer, cosmetician, medical assistant, and bookseller

The mostly abandoned main street

 

In 2007 a storm approaches the mostly abandoned main street of Robert Lee, county seat of Coke County, Texas.

 

*

 

From Community to Facebook

 

From Community to Facebook

 

Religion

Religious institutions witnessed a remarkable expansion in the postwar period

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Religion

By 1990, membership in all churches and synagogues surpassed 148 million, an increase of 60 million during the previous four decades

Roman Catholic Church membership more than doubled due to influx of Hispanic immigrants

Membership in mainstream Protestant churches generally declined, but rose solidly in fundamentalist and evangelical churches

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Religion

By 1990, membership in all churches and synagogues surpassed 148 million, an increase of 60 million during the previous four decades

The Jehovah’s Witnesses and the Mormon Church grew as well

In 1990, 2/3 of all Americans reported that they belonged to a church, the highest percentage by far among the major industrial nations of the West

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Religion

But the membership numbers were misleading

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Since 1970, church attendance among persons below 60 has dropped about 20%

By 2000, the percent of college freshmen who said they never attended church had more than doubled since 1970

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

By the 1970s, moreover, millions of Americans went to church by turning on the TV

“Televangelists” founded their own churches and educational institutions, supported by direct appeals to viewers

A few established their own colleges, such as Falwell’s Liberty University, Oral Roberts University, and Robertson’s Regent University

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Community-based ministers saw congregations shrink; thousands of churches closed their doors

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Sports and Exercise

Participation in team sports fell at about the same rate as church attendance

By first decade of 21st century, more young people played basketball and soccer than in the past, but far fewer played softball, baseball, football, tennis, and league bowling

The fields on which young Boomers spent much of their lives had been sold to developers or fenced in and locked

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Sports and Exercise

Lack of exercise among Millennials became a source of national concern

By 2010, 1 in 3 American children was obese, in part because of too much time spent on electronic media

However, some Millennials exercised while engaged with electronic media

Since 2000, membership in gyms skyrocketed

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Education

The rise of online learning illustrates the transformation of social activities into solitary Internet pursuits

By 2009, over 4 million Americans enrolled in online courses, twice as many as in 2003

One reason distance online education took off was it spared students the hassle of commuting, which occupied more of the American schedule

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Living at Home

The postwar suburban home was conceived as a private refuge from the hustle and bustle of downtown and increasingly became more private

By the 1990s, many well-to-do people moved into privately owned “gated communities”—only residents and specified guests were allowed in

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Living at Home

The trend toward increased privacy could be seen even within the home

By 1975, fewer than half of Americans ate dinner with their whole family; and by 2000, that number was fewer than one-third

Family members retreated to their own rooms to watch their own television shows or log onto the Internet

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Social Media

Millennials withdrew to the privacy of their rooms in order to socialize on the Internet, via Facebook and other sites

Some worried that Millennials spent so much time attending to their own circle of Facebook friends that they often failed to encounter people with ideas or perspectives different from their own

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Social Media

Others endorsed the Internet as an ideal if somewhat odd way to meet strangers and exchange opinions

Second Life, a virtual 3D world populated by some 18 million “residents,” allowed strangers to converse and imaginatively interact

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Virtual communities possessed both the advantages and disadvantages of anonymity

Anonymity helps protect people who wish to articulate ideas and explore behaviors that might generate disapproval in “real” settings

But the anonymity of the Internet also carries risks

Sexual predators target teen chat rooms and social-networking sites

From Community to Facebook (cont’d)

 

Virtual communities possessed both the advantages and disadvantages of anonymity

Anonymity, too, allows people to vent frustrations, prejudices, and spite without concern for consequences

“Cyberbullying” also emerged as a major concern, and has led to the passage of protective legislation

These two avatars engage in virtual courtship

 

In Second Life, multi-player online game, these two avatars engage in virtual courtship.

 

*

 

Greying of the Boomers

 

Greying of the Boomers

 

2011: Nearly 1/7th of the American population was over 65

Demographic projections indicated that by the time the Millennials reached 65, 20% of the population would be over 65

The aging of the nation’s population had serious economic implications

Greying of the Boomers (cont’d)

 

Nation’s wealth shifting from economically productive purposes to providing health care and pensions for the elderly

Of particular concern was the viability of Social Security

As of 2010, the Social Security Trust Fund had $2 trillion in assets, but the projected cost of Social Security by 2050 exceeded $7 trillion

Greying of the Boomers (cont’d)

 

Of particular concern was the viability of Social Security

The difference would have to be covered by the contributions made by working Millennials, many of whom worried that the fund would be gone by the time they retired

Medical advances during the late twentieth century led to an increase in the life span: an American born in 2000 was projected to live to 77

Greying of the Boomers (cont’d)

 

But this good news further complicated the transition from Boomers to Millennials, which were compounded by attitudinal differences

How Millennials will treat aging Boomers is anyone’s guess

Sixty-year-old John A. Garraty, his first twenty-four-mile marathon

 

In 1980, sixty-year-old John A. Garraty, co-author of this book, completed his first twenty-four-mile marathon in New York City. He completed his last marathon when he was seventy-two.

 

*

 

Chapter Review

 

Chapter Review

 

*

 

Dolores Huerta and César Chávez, leaders of the United Farm Workers, discuss their 1968 strike of grape pickers. They are framed by photographs of Robert Kennedy, campaigning for the Democratic nomination for president, and Mohandas Gandhi, leader of the non-violent protest movement that won independence for India in 1947.

 

*

 

Stanley (Ann) Dunham with her son, Barack Obama, age two.

 

*

 

Paid Workforce, 1950-2005, by Gender

 

The number (and percentage) of wage-earning women increased rapidly after 1960. In 1950, for example, fewer than one-third of the paid work force consisted of women; by 2006, the proportion had increased to nearly half.

 

*

 

State Laws on Abortion prior to Roe v. Wade (1973)

 

Prior to Roe v. Wade, only Hawaii, Alaska, and New York had legalized abortion. Louisiana, Pennsylvania, and New Hampshire prohibited all abortions, while every other state allowed abortions only in cases of rape or incest or to preserve the life of the woman.

 

*

 

Phyllis Schlafly drew much of her support from working-class women who were left vulnerable by the recession after 1973.

 

*

 

Harvey Milk was the first openly gay candidate to be elected to office in California.

 

*

 

In this electron microscopic photograph, two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells, in different stages of budding, are emerging from an infected T-lymphocyte human blood cell (pink). The HIV cell that has almost broken free includes RNA (green—the cell’s genetic code) and it will reinfect other T-cells. T-cells are part of the body’s immune system.

 

*

 

Table 31.1

 

Gender Activist Victories and Conservative Responses

 

*

 

Narcotics policemen in Bridgeport, Connecticut, arrest a suspect for selling crack near housing projects in 1994.

 

*

 

Racial Shifts in St. Louis During the 1950s

 

During the 1950s, the white population of St. Louis declined by more than 200,000, while the black population increased by 100,000. Much of the central core was almost entirely black.

 

*

 

Growth of Suburban St. Louis, 1950–1960

 

During the 1950s, the suburban townships in St. Louis county west of the city gained nearly 300,000 people, an increase of 73 percent. More than 99 percent of the suburban residents were white.

 

*

 

In 2007 a storm approaches the mostly abandoned main street of Robert Lee, county seat of Coke County, Texas.

 

*

 

In Second Life, multi-player online game, these two avatars engage in virtual courtship.

 

*

 

In 1980, sixty-year-old John A. Garraty, co-author of this book, completed his first twenty-four-mile marathon in New York City. He completed his last marathon when he was seventy-two.

 

*

 

Chapter Review

 

*

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