The nervous system




      The nervous system is divided into two parts: the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the two most important parts of the human body, namely, the brain and the spinal cord. The brain represents the main part of the human body. It analyzes the information from sensory organs such as the eyes, ears and other senses, and sends the necessary orders to them. It also organizes the vital processes in the human body, especially the regulation of hormones. The spinal cord represents the main centre for the transfer of information to and from the brain and the reactions to different circumstances. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) transfers data, commands and information from the brain and spinal cord to all parts of the body. It also transmits information which is transmitted by the senses to the brain and spinal cord (Snell, 2010).


      The brain and spinal cord contain gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). They can suffer from different types of disease that might change their structure and functions. One of these diseases is known as Multiple sclerosis (MS), which is a common disease that affects the central nervous system and affects the ability of the brain to send and receive signals (Heimer, 1983). 


      Multiple sclerosis is one of the most dangerous diseases worldwide. It is expected that MS will globally affect up to 2 million individuals and approximately 100,000 citizens in the UK (Constantinescu, Farooqi, O’Brien, & Gran, 2011). According to Goldenberg (2012), between 250,000 to 350,000 individuals in the United States experience of multiple sclerosis. MS lesion is an inflammation, and chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of the human brainstem and spinal cord. The disease results in damage to the myelin sheath which covers and protects nerve fibres. It is the major cause of significant neurological disability through loss of communication between the human brain and other organs. There no specific cause of multiple sclerosis and it is an unpredictable and varied disease. However, there are symptoms of MS which depend upon the number of affected nerves. Some patients with chronic MS may have problems walking, vision damage, muscle weakness, failures in sensation, pain, and disorders in the function of the bladder and bowel, while others may suffer long periods of MS without any new signs (Minagar, 2014).

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