spss assignment

spss assignment



Note that this assignment is under 1,600 words so there is room for expansion.




An investigation of the behaviour of smokers and their attitude toward quitting can


deliver valuable information to create effective measurements to work towards a


lower smoking prevalence in the future. Within this study the theory of planned


behaviour (TPB) is applied, with the purpose to investigate the influence of the TPB


antecedents on intention (INT) of smokers to quit smoking. The antecedents are


defined as attitude (ATT), subjective norm (SN) and perceived behavioural control


(PBC). A key focus within this research is to discover similarities and differences


across the two different European countries: Greece and Spain.


The paper will first give a theoretical overview about the theory of planned behaviour.


Secondly the sample profile will be briefly discussed. A descriptive analysis will


discuss differences between the mean scores of the antecedents across the two


countries. Based on the findings a regression analysis will demonstrate the


predictability of the intention to quit smoking by the TPB variables and how this


differs between the nations. Finally a conclusion will give ideas for the usefulness of


the acquired data and discuss research limitations.


Theory of planned behaviour


The TPB is an expectancy value model which states that human behaviour is a


consequence of one’s behavioural intention, which is in turn explained by one’s


attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control regarding the behaviour.


The TPB is an extension of the theory of reason action (TRA; Fishbein & Ajzen,


1975) which does not include perceived behavioural control and thus not designed to


explain behaviours out with an individual’s volitional control. In the TPB and TRA


models, behavioural intention is the cognitive representation of the individual’s


motivation to enact the behaviour in question. Attitude toward the behaviour is the


individual’s positive or negative evaluation of performing the behaviour. Subjective


norm is the individual’s perceived social/peer pressure in undertaking the behaviour.


Lastly, perceived behavioural control represents the individual’s perception of the ease


or difficulty in enacting the behaviour. The TPB has been found to explain intention


Comment [E1]: Executive summary needed. This is part of the assignment


requirements. Should also include title and


contents page.


An executive summary should provide a


summary of all the research process. i.e. what the objectives of the research are, how


the research was conducted, the key results


and recommendations.


Comment [E2]: Could be more specific as to why this is important, including some




I would expect research objectives to be clearly stated, with associated research


questions to be answered


Comment [E3]: What about any specific studies in the content of smoking cessation?


These would be very relevant to refer to.


Reference to key journal articles pertinent


to the research topic is needed.


For your report, there is no need to dwell on


theory, but you need to give some brief background on the key variables such as


perceived value in the appendix.




and behaviour in a wide variety of contexts and is considered to be the most used


model in understanding health behaviour (Astrom & Rise, 2001).


Analysis and Results


Sample profile


The study was conducted through an online questionnaire in Greece and Spain.


Overall 248 responses were received with a higher proportion (60% or 150) of


responses from Greece and the remaining 98 responses from Spain. A number of


questions were used to collect information about the sample, these were gender, age


(in years), household income (in €), and social position. All respondents identified


themselves to be smokers. Figure 1a and 1b show the proportion of respondents who


are male and female for each country. There are proportionally more males for the


Greek sample than in the Spanish ample. A Chi-square test showed a significant


difference in proportion of males/females across country (p < .05). Figure 2a and 2b


gives the social position of respondents for each country. The bar charts show that for


both countries around half of the respondents are in full-time employment. For Spain


there are a higher proportion of respondents across each of the remaining categories


than for Greece. For the Greek sample most respondents who are not employed full-


time are in the categories of student or other. The other category may represent


homemakers but this is not clear from the data provided. In terms of age and income


across the countries, Table 1 provided descriptive statistics. The mean values


highlights that the Spanish sample are overall older than the Greek sample. An


independent samples t test confirmed that the mean age of respondents is different (p


< .05) across the two countries. Difference in mean household income was also


statistically significant (p < .05) indicating that the levels of household income differ


across the Spanish and Greek respondents. The Greek respondents have on average a


higher household income than the Spanish respondents.


Comment [E4]: Could also include a descriptive analysis of the variables, e.g.


was intention to quit high/low?


Comment [E5]: Avoid mixing present and past tenses in your reporting. You can


use either present or past tense, but keep


consistently to one choice.


Comment [E6]: A vague term. Try to avoid ambiguous terms. State clearly what


you mean.


Comment [l7]: There is a higher proportion


Comment [l8]: These two statements contradict each other. The statement for


Spain is wrong and does not reflect the


views shown in Figures 2a and 2b.




Figure 1a. Pie Chart showing Gender for




Figure 1b. Pie Chart showing Gender for




Figure 2a. Bar Chart showing Social Position for Greece Comment [E9]: Should use a clustered bar chart instead of two separate charts.




Figure 2b. Bar Chart showing Social Position for Spain


Table 1. Descriptive statistics for age and income across Country


T-tests across Country


It is important to determine if the two countries are similar in regard to the mean level


of the TPB variables. Before discussing the t-test it is important to establish if the


respondents from each country have a similar variability in their responses to the TPB


questionnaire items. Results from the Levene’s test of equality of variances shows


that for the intention items and the overall average of intention there are significant


Comment [E10]: It is better to include the SPSS output as an appendix and create


your own tables using word. Your own table should contain only the centrally


important statistics (and also decide on


suitable number of decimal places). I suggest 2 dp’s. A table such as Table 1 of


Hassan and Shiu (2006) but giving the


number of items, the range, the mean and standard deviation for each construct would


be useful. It is important that the reader


understands what, for example, a mean of 2.5 represents – does this value perhaps


indicating a very positive attitude or a


moderately positive attitude? It also depends of the measurement i.e. how many


scale points are used and what the end


points of the scale are so this is important information.


Comment [E11]: Again see Hassan and Shiu (2006) for a further example of displaying and writing about t-test results.


Comment [E12]: This is vague! Why is it important and to whom is it important?




differences (p < .05) in the variability across the countries with respondents from


Spain being less homogenous in their responses than the respondents from Greece.


The levene’s test results for subjective norm show that there is no difference (p > .05)


in the variability of responses from respondents across the two countries.


In order to establish if there are mean differences an independent t-test was


conducted. The results of this analysis are presented in Tables 2 and 3. The results


show overall that there are many mean differences across the countries in terms of


intention and attitude. But that SN and PBC do not differ significantly across the two


countries. Importantly plan and intend significantly differ across the countries with


respondents from Spain having a higher intention to quit smoking. However


respondents in both countries both exhibit a similar mean regarding wanting to quit.


There are no differences across the countries in terms of the cognitive attitudinal


items, however there are differences across the countries in terms of the affective


attitude items. Respondents in both countries consider smoking to be negative and


bad. However smokers from Greece perceive smoking to be more pleasant and


enjoyable than respondents from Spain. This might represent a barrier to engaging in


quitting. In terms of SN respondents from both countries express some normative


pressure to engage in quitting. However the overall mean value is low. Respondents


from both countries perceive that quitting is within their control and therefore have


high mean values on the measures of self-efficacy.


Table 2. Means for each TPB variable across Country


Comment [E13]: Within the discussion of the t-test results, it is important to demonstrate an understanding of the


Levene’s test. The red text adds a


discussion of Levene’s test for intention and subjective norm only.


Comment [E14]: Would also be good to add in brackets the mean values so that readers can see some detail without having


to look at the table. For example, in terms


of SN, respondents from both countries express low levels of normative pressure to


engage in quitting (mean = 1.4).




Table 3. T-test results for each TPB variable across Country


Comment [E15]: Hard to see, again create tables in word with the key


information and put SPSS output in






Regression Analysis of the TPB model


In order to determine the usefulness of the TPB in this context. Regression analysis


was employed to determine if any of the TPB antecedents explained intention to quit


smoking. The dependent variable is defined as the intention to quit smoking. The


independent variables are attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control.


The results (see table 4) show that the TPB antecedents explain approximately 34% of the


variation in intention to quit smoking. However neither Attitude nor SN are significant


factors in explaining intention (ps > .05). Only self-efficacy explains intention to quit (p


< .05) with respondents who have stronger belief in their ability to quit smoking having a


higher intention to do so. Thus the TPB and TRA models have not been shown to be


powerful in explaining intention in this behavioural context. An additional hierarchical


regression analysis including country as an additional predictor variable shows that


country adds to the explanation of intention (p < .05) with an increase in r-squared from


Comment [E16]: Not a complete sentence. When you start with “In order to ….” You should have a second part that


goes something like “… one


should/must ….”


Comment [l17]: (neither one) is


Comment [E18]: Where is the output for this?




.34 to .36 (Sig. F change p < .05) This indicates that the TPB should be modelled


separately for each country.


Table 4. Regression results for TPB model




The research results give some helpful insights how to explain the behavior of smokers to


quit. The data acquired can be useful input for organizations which develop anti-smoking


campaigns in the two countries. The fact that perceived behavioral control is the strongest


influencer of a smoker’s intention to quit is useful information that enables marketing


managers to implement suitable strategies, such as promotional programs which support


smokers to know and develop their motivation and will-power regarding quitting. An


important finding for social marketers is that respondents from Greece hold positive


Comment [E19]: In this case, you should conduct and report this additional




Part correlations could be included and


explained, also what about beta values?????


Also demographic factors could be included


in the model.


Comment [E20]: No mention of the predictive ability of the TPB in relation to


other studies in this area or with regards to


meta-analyses on the TPB. Wherever possible, it is useful to relate your


findings to that reported in the literature


you referenced earlier.


Comment [E21]: Should use UK English spelling consistently.


Comment [l22]: Again US spelling.


Comment [E23]: Again US spelling.




attitudes towards smoking, and these positive attitudes might inhibit their intentions to


quit smoking.


There are various factors that limit the validity of the research results. Firstly solely the


intention to quit was measured, but not the actual behaviour. This might limit the


effectiveness of non-smoking strategies based on the results, since no evidence for the


translation of intention into the actual action exists. Furthermore other variables that were


identified to influence on the intention to quit, such as habit (Godin et al., 1992) and past


experience (Ajzen, 1985) were not included into the research.


Regarding the validity of the findings there are some limitation within the research


methodology. The very brief questionnaire cannot catch all dimensions of TPB model.


Additionally the subjective norm was only measured on a one item question. There might


have been higher correlation between the subjective norm and the intention to quit, as


identified by previous researchers, if the question would have been asked with a multi-


item scale. The comparability across the countries is limited due to some significant


differences within the sample profile by country in terms of unequal distribution and


structure. Apart from the limitations of the research the TPB model itself has some


restrictions. First of all demographics, personality-related and cultural factors are not


taken into account, although they also shape the behaviour of people. Additionally, the


model assumes rationality of people, unconscious decision making is not considered


(Sharma, 2007).


Overall the TPB has performed poorly in explaining intentions to quit smoking in Greece


and in Spain.




References should be included


Also useful to include an appendix (say to give a clear definition of the key concepts


such as self-brand connection, perceived value, etc. – reference to extant literature will


be good too.)


Comment [E24]: What does this mean??? When you make a statement, you


need to convey clearly and if necessary provide a justification too to substantiate


your statement/claim.


Comment [E25]: Watch out making this generalization as the analysis was not


conducted separately for each country.


Also, try to avoid short paragraphs (with


less than four sentences).

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