Information system paper

Information system paper

Hi Everybody, how are you? Welcome to INFO 101! My name is Maureen Kinkela and I will be your instructor for this course. Can you figure out what I am doing here? HINT: It relates to something VERY IMPORTANT in our industry! Read on for the answer! 




Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Maureen P. Kinkela




Learning Objectives


A student who successfully completes this section will be able to:


Describe the timeline of computing


Identify crucial moments in the timeline that resulted in today’s computing environment


Explain ways in which this technology affects our daily lives.


On this slide is the list of objectives for this week’s materials. The history of computing isn’t just a riveting, spellbinding page turner. It is also the story of how we arrived at the techniques for doing practically everything we do today.




“Technological change is not an isolated event but an ongoing process – rapid, continuous and accelerating.”


Brian W. Kernighan


The statement on this slide was made by the man who wrote the first book I ever read on computers – “The C Programming Language”. He also shares credit for doing pioneering work on the original AT&T Unix System. He has been a computer scientist and educator in computer sciences since the 60’s. This statement was made in a book he published in 2017 – so I would argue that he is in a position to make the statement with some authority!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Week 1: Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


The slides that follow show the topics we will be discussing this quarter. This week, we will look at some of the earliest adventures in automation – they may surprise you!




Week 2 – The Internet and the Web


Week 2 The Internet and the Web


In week 2, we will examine some of the fundamentals of the Internet and the World Wide Web. This innovation has changed every aspect about the ways we do computing.




Week 3 – Components of Computing Devices


Week 3: Components of Computing Devices


Do you know what is inside your computer? (P.S., if you are a gamer, the answer may be “Yes!”) Most people who worked with PC’s used to have some knowledge of this, but in past years it has become possible to use a computer without ever looking inside of it.




Week 4 – Servers, Clients, Virtual Machines, and Other Devices


Week 4: Servers, Clients, Virtual Machines and Other Devices:


When I first started working with PC’s, there would be one stand-alone IBM PC in every department – if you were lucky. Eventually there was an IBM PC on every desk, pretty much, but they still stood alone. If you wanted to share a file, you put it on a disk and walked it over to the recipient- or put it in a padded envelope and mailed or overnighted it. To say that this situation has changed is a pretty dramatic understatement! This week we will look at the various forms that computing can take – and trace the history of how they came into being.




Week 5 – Databases and Data Management


Week 5: Databases and Data Management:


There are few non-trivial computer applications that don’t involve some sort of a database. Data has become an invaluable resource, with importance that is difficult to calculate. Data is power and data is how everything in our computing environment works – so, it helps to know some things about databases. I was a database programmer for many years, and I can tell you that data is a fascinating way to make a living. In Week 5, we will examine these topics.




Week 6 – Cyber Security and Cyber Warfare


Week 6: Cyber Security and Cyber Warfare


Here is a timely topic! The ubiquity of the Internet and the increasing reality that everything we do in modern times is based on some sort of electronics, makes it seem naïve to believe that electronics and the Internet are not dangerous weapons that can be used against us in truly horrifying ways. In Week6, we will examine some of these ways in which we are vulnerable.




Week 7 – Identity Theft and Individual Cyber Security


Week 7: Identity Theft and Individual Cyber Security


Our vulnerability to cyber harm is clearly not limited to what can happen to our power plants, control towers and communication networks. Our personal resources are also at risk – and not only from American criminals.


In week 7 we will look at some of our personal vulnerabilities and examine what we can do about them.




Week 8 – Linux and Open Source


Week 8: Linux and Open Source


Welcome to the wonderful world of Free and Open Source Software (otherwise known as “FOSS”)! The individuals in these pictures are some of the true pioneers in the world of Open Source software. In Week 8 we will talk about the Open Source adventure and play a little with one of FOSS’s most successful experiments – Linux




Week 9 – Command line interface


Week 9: Command Line Interface


As I have observed computing over more years that I will admit to here, one of the things that has amazed me has been the way that we have moved in circles – from an interface that looked very much like the one above, through two and a half decades of primarily front end, point and click, interfaces where the user was truly working with a black box, and back again to command line interfaces. It is fascinating to me to think about the reasons for this circular motion within our industry.




Week 10 – Computing technology management and administration


Week 10: Computing Technology Management and Administration


As the numbers and types of computing activities have expanded, so have the numbers and types of jobs being created in this field. This means that the future for employment in IT has never been brighter! In this week, we will examine the types of jobs that students may be working at in the future!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Discussion Item:


Describe your very first experience with a computer!


Here is your first Discussion Board exercise. Let’s compare histories! I started out working with a Mohawk System. It involved large bins of cards and card punching machines like the one pictured in the next slide. Each card represented some sort of transaction – in the case of my job, a debit or credit to an insurance agent’s account. The account auditors batched these cards with audit sheets representing new cards that had to be punched to make the account balance correct. The resulting batch of cards, when run through the computer, would represent the correct balance to the agents’ account.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


The problem with punch cards is that it is difficult to eyeball them for errors. You labor over your batch of cards, and when you are finished punching, you carry the batch to the computer room, being careful not to drop the batch! You submit the batch to someone in the computer room, and leave. The next day you find out that the job didn’t run due to some silly typo. You fix the typo, carry the batch back to the computer room, and leave. The next day you find out that the job didn’t run due to some logic problem. You fix the logic problem, but in the course of doing this you make another typo… This can get really frustrating!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Automata: Animated mechanical figures that simulated life. Created in various forms from the beginning of the 18th century


Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709 – November 21, 1782)


Significance: Fired the imagination and provided an entertaining excuse for inventors to experiment with moving parts and patterns of behavior, which led directly to the use of punch cards.


Many people claim that the first computer was a loom, and in many regards this is true, but there were machines that behaved autonomously well before the loom. This is a famous one. Jacques de Vaucanson, a Jesuit priest, created some of the most famous of the animated figures that were sort of a craze in the 18th century. His figures could in some ways be compared with robots, although they were totally mechanical. The first of them was a life-size figure that played twelve different pieces on a flute. The one on this slide is the one I love though. “The Duck.” This mechanical beast could flap its wings, eat, and digest grain. It contained complex tubing in the Duck’s stomach and intestines, and each wing contained over four hundred moving parts. How I would have loved to see this duck operate!


Maybe someday I will be able to. Even though the original Duck disappeared and was most likely destroyed in a museum fire, a replica of the duck was made by a clock-maker from Chambery in France. This replica still existed as of recently.


These automata were amusing, for sure, but they also gave scientists of the day practice in the kind of thinking that evolved into modern computing! Vaucanson later on in life, revolutionized the beleaguered silk industry in France by modernizing the equipment, including a very important move to punch cards for automating the weaving.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Joseph Marie Jacquard: In 1801, invented a loom that used punched wooden cards to automatically weave fabric designs


Jaquard’s paste board punch cards


Pretty generally, credit for successfully inventing an automated loom goes to this man – Joseph Marie Jacquard. Jacquard’s loom mechanism was controlled by recorded patterns of holes in a string of cards, and allowed what is now known as the Jacquard weaving of intricate patterns.


This invention was based on designs by three men:


Jacques de Vaucanson (February 24, 1709 – November 21, 1782) , the inventor of the automated duck! He also was first man to design an automatic loom but never developed the idea, due in a large part to the resistance of weavers to the automation!


Basile Bouchon (March 17, 1815 – May 27, 1894), a textile worker, who invented a way to control a loom with a perforated paper tape in 1725. This development is considered to be the first industrial application of a semi-automated machine.


Jean Baptiste Falcon (1728) who improved on Bouchon’s machine (for controlling a loom with a perforated paper tape) by the paper roll with a set of punched cards attached to one another, which made it possible to change the program rapidly. Each punch card controlled a single hook or needle. The design allowed for much larger patterns to be woven but required two men to operate.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


This portrait of Jacquard was woven in silk on a Jacquard loom and required 24,000 punched cards to create (1839). It was only produced to order. Now here is something really interesting: Charles Babbage owned one of these portraits; it inspired him in using perforated cards in his analytical engine. It is in the collection of the Science Museum in London, England.




I tried to emulate the Jacquard loom’s behavior, but this loom needs a lot of work! Press the PgDn key if the loom doesn’t start up automatically.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology




Jaquard, de Vaucanson, Bouchon and Falcon recognized the potential for automation – the formalizing of steps in processes, and the advantages of speed, accuracy and repeatability that could be accrued if machines were to use these formalized steps to perform the kind of repetition that is often problematic to humans.


Automated looms were fiercely opposed by the silk-weavers, who feared the loss of their livelihood.


The concept of punched cards to control a sequence of operations set the stage for the stored program computers we use today.


Jacquard’s invention had a deep influence on Charles Babbage.


Are you hooked yet? If not, read on! The story is just getting started!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


English mathematician Charles Babbage (December 26, 1791 – October 18, 1871)  – inventor of the Difference Engine and the Analytical


Charles Babbage spent his life tinkering with devices designed to calculate astronomical and mathematical tables, which in his time were calculated by humans called “computers.”


His first machine, the Difference Engine, was powered by cranking a handle. He never really got it working, but its design was used by various inventors, and finally was constructed and sold to the British government in 1859.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Difference Engine No. 2


To celebrate the 200th anniversary of Babbage’s birth, the London Science Museum constructed a working Difference Engine No. 2 from 1989 to 1991.


Once completed, both the engine and its printer worked flawlessly, and still do. The difference engine and printer were constructed to tolerances achievable with 19th century technology, resolving a long-standing debate about whether Babbage’s design would actually have worked.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Babbage’s second machine, the Analytical Engine, had a much more general design:


Significance: Babbage adopted the ideas of the first generation of automation innovators, and took the first steps in putting them to use for general purposes.


Here are the specifications of the design of the Analytical Enginer:


30 meters long and 10 meters wide


Memory capacity: 1,000 numbers of 50 digits each.


Powered by a steam engine.


Input (programs and data) to be provided to the machine on punch cards.


Output would be enabled by a printer, a curve plotter and a bell.


An arithmetical unit (the “mill”) would be able to perform all four arithmetical operations.


The programming language to be employed was akin to modern day assembly languages.


Three different types of punch cards were used: one for arithmetical operations, one for numerical constants, and one for load and store operations.


There were three separate readers for the three types of cards.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Significance: Of course women can be programmers! And mathematicians and engineers!




Meet Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace


Daughter of Lord Byron and


First Computer Programmer!


In 1842, the Italian mathematician Luigi Menabrea, whom Charles Babbage had met while travelling in Italy, wrote a description of Babbage’s Analytical Engine in French. In 1843, the description was translated into English and extensively annotated by Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, who had become interested in the engine ten years earlier. Ada Lovelace was Lord Byron’s daughter, by the way.


In recognition of her additions to Menabrea’s paper (which are reported to have included such things as describing how codes could be created for the device to handle letters and symbols along with numbers and theorizing a method for the engine to repeat a series of instructions, a process known as looping that computer programs use today), she has been described as the first computer programmer.


In 1980, the U.S. Department of Defense named a newly developed computer language “Ada,” after Lovelace. Ada was the very first object oriented language that I was ever introduced to.




Week 1 –Introduction to Computing and Security Technology




Hollerith’s punch cards were a primary method for loading programs and data into computers for many years as they became indispensable business tools. I worked with them! 


His IBM computers led the way in every generation of business computers from the 60’s through the 80’s.




Herman Hollerith’s


Punch Card System


IBM Started here!


Herman Hollerith


By 1880, the U.S. population had grown so large that it took more than seven years to tabulate the U.S. Census results. Herman Hollerith was an engineer, inventor, educator and generally appears to have been a genius! He worked on the 1880 U.S. Census and after this debacle, he designed a punch card system to calculate the 1890 census, accomplishing the task in just three years and saving the government $5 million. His design was used to calculate censuses all over the world, and was used in the 1900 U.S. Census as well.


To compensate for the cyclical nature of the Census Bureau’s demand for his machines, Hollerith founded the Tabulating Machine Company (1896) which was one of three companies that merged to form IBM in 1911.






Week 1 –Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1936: Alan Turing presented the notion of a universal machine, later called the Turing machine, capable of computing anything that is computable.


1941: Alan Turing and his team at Bletchey Park crack the Enigma machine.


1950: Alan Turning proposes the “Imitation Game”, which also became known as the “Turing Test.”




Cryptoanaysis was the father of computer security.


The central concept of the modern computer was based on Turing’s universal machine.


The “Turing Test” has arisen again as a topic of fascination, due to the recent increase in new AI work.


Alan Turing was a mathematician known for his groundbreaking theoretical and practical work related to issues of complexity, computation and Artificial Intelligence. Although his body of work is large, the three things he is most well known for are:


During World War II, creating a computer that could decode the German Enigma machine – a message coder that the Germans were using to communicate war related plans. The development of a machine that could crack this code is generally considered to have been a large factor in the outcome of that war.


Turing created the “Universal Machine”, a theoretical computation device that is capable of computing anything computable.


Turing proposed “The Imitation Game”. This proposal is a sort of test of the question of whether a computer could be said to have intelligence. The test involves having an interrogator in a separate room, interrogating both a person and a machine running AI software. The object of the machine is to try to cause the interrogator to mistakenly conclude that the machine is the other person; the object of the other person is to try to help the interrogator to correctly identify the machine. If the interrogator cannot tell the difference, then the computer passes the Turing Test.




Week 1 –Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


A vacuum tube, also called an electron tube, is a sealed-glass or metal-ceramic enclosure used in electronic circuitry to control the flow of electrons between the metal electrodes sealed inside the tubes. The air inside the tubes is removed by a vacuum. Vacuum tubes are used for amplification of a weak current, rectification of an alternating current to direct current (AC to DC), generation of oscillating radio-frequency (RF) power for radio and radar, and more.


Timeline of Vacuum Tube Development


In 1875, American, G.R. Carey invented the phototube.


In 1878, Englishman Sir William Crookes invented the ‘Crookes tube’, an early prototype of the cathode-ray tube.


In 1895, German, Wilhelm Roengten invented an early prototype Xray tube.


In 1897, German, Karl Ferdinand Braun invents the cathode ray tube oscilloscope.


In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming invented the first practical electron tube called the ‘Fleming Valve’. Leming invents the vacuum tube diode.


The Vacuum Tube


This timeline for the development of the vacuum tube doesn’t include the early work on the device, which reportedly started as early as the 17th century, when the technology to actually make good use of them didn’t yet exist. We won’t go into the details of this device here, but what this timeline makes clear to me, is the extent to which scientists saw the value in a device that could control the movement of electrons. Vacuum tubes were an important part of the development of television and radio, in addition to their value in computers, and were used extensively by the military for radar, among other things. This equipment is still in use today in a lot of audio equipment.




Week 1 –Introduction to Computing and Security


Timeline of Vacuum Tube Development (Cont’d)


In 1906, Lee de Forest invented the Audion later called the triode, an improvement on the ‘Fleming Valve’ tube.


In 1913, William D. Coolidge invented the ‘Coolidge Tube’, the first practical Xray tube.


In 1920, RCA began the first commercial electron tube manufacturing.


In 1921, American Albert Hull invented the magnetron electronic vacuum tube.


In 1922, Philo T. Farnsworth develops the first tube scanning system for television.


In 1923, Vladimir K Zworykin invented the iconoscope or the cathode-ray tubeand the kinescope.


In 1926, Hull and Williams co-invented the tetrode electronic vacuum tube.


In 1938, Americans Russell and Sigurd Varian co-invented the klystron tube.


Prior to the implementation of viable vacuum tubes in computers, mechanical gears or magnetically powered switches were required to control and record the movements of the computer.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1944: Eckert-Mauchly’s ENIAC


(Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)


1943-1944: Two University of Pennsylvania professors, John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, built the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC). Considered the grandfather of digital computers, it filled a 20-foot by 40-foot room and had 18,000 vacuum tubes.


Quick test for you: How much memory does that represent?


In 1973 a U.S. District Court invalidated the ENIAC patent and concluded that the ENIAC inventors had derived the subject matter of the electronic digital computer from a study at Iowa State University by J.V. Atanasoff and his graduate student, Clifford Berry. This computer was the first computer built without gears, cams, belts or shafts.


ENIAC was developed at the Moore school at UPenn, just a few blocks from our campus! There is a small section of it still in Moore Hall. You can make arrangements to pay it a visit. Sometimes when I need inspiration, I go over there. And what I was trying to do in the first picture in this presentation, was take a selfie with it! But it didn’t go well. I could get me in the picture or ENIAC in the picture – never both! I needed a selfie stick or lessons or something. It did give the locals a good chuckle though – I must have taken 50 pictures trying!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Ultimately I think you need to go see it yourself! Until then, here is a picture…




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology




This is a great swords-to-plowshares story. ENIAC was developed to fight a war. The work that continued from it changed business forever.


1946: Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation’s UNIVAC


(UNIVersal Automatic Computer)


1946: Mauchly and Eckert left the University of Pennsylvania and received funding from the Census Bureau to build the UNIVAC, the first commercial computer for business and government applications.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1947: William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invented the transistor. They discovered how to make an electric switch with solid materials and no need for a vacuum.


1958: Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce unveiled the integrated circuit, also known as the computer chip. Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2000 for his work.




Without these two inventions and the massive improvements that have been made to them, computers would still be the size of rooms, not playing cards!


Without the invention of the transistor, followed less than a decade later by the integrated circuit, the PC revolution could not have happened.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1953: Grace Hopper developed the first computer language, which eventually became known as COBOL.




Women played a large role in the programming aspects of the industry from its very beginning – and women also benefited hugely from the empowering nature of computers.


Looking at the dates, are you noticing an increase in the number of innovations ? This is due in a large part to increases in the numbers of people involved in our industry. Surely, one person who deserves special notice is Grace Hopper. This amazing pioneering computer scientist, mathematician, educator and Navy officer has a long list of accomplishments associated with her work, and has been granted many honors. Some of her premier accomplishments were the development of the first compiler, and one of the first recognizable programming languages, COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) which is still actually being used in various forms on legacy systems today.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1954: The FORTRAN programming language was born.


1964: Douglas Engelbart showed a prototype of the modern computer, with a mouse and a graphical user interface (GUI). This marked the evolution of the computer from a specialized machine for scientists and mathematicians to technology that was more accessible to the general public.


1969: A group of developers at Bell Labs produced UNIX, an operating system that addressed compatibility issues. Written in the C programming language, UNIX was portable across multiple platforms and became the operating system of choice among mainframes at large companies and government entities. Due to the slow nature of the system, it never quite gained traction among home PC users.


1970: The newly formed Intel unveiled the Intel 1103, the first Dynamic Access Memory (DRAM) chip.


1971: Alan Shugart leads a team of IBM engineers who invent the “floppy disk,” allowing data to be shared among computers.


1973: Robert Metcalfe, a member of the research staff for Xerox, developed Ethernet for connecting multiple computers and other hardware.


It gets harder to discuss every single innovation! On the next two slides are a list of additional critical steps in developing the technology and shaping it into what it is today.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1974-1977: A number of personal computers hit the market, including Scelbi & Mark-8 Altair, IBM 5100, RadioShack’s TRS-80 —affectionately known as the “Trash 80” — and the Commodore PET.


1975: The January issue of Popular Electronics magazine features the Altair 8080, described as the “world’s first minicomputer kit to rival commercial models.” Two “computer geeks,” Paul Allen and Bill Gates, offer to write software for the Altair, using the new BASIC language. On April 4, after the success of this first endeavor, the two childhood friends form their own software company, Microsoft.


With the introduction of the first personal computers, an excitement was born. Everyone felt that something new was happening, something that would change the world forever – and they were right!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1976: Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak started Apple Computers on April Fool’s Day and rolled out the Apple I, the first computer with a single-circuit board.


The transformation from all the machines we have been looking at so far into what you compute with today, was in a large sense spearheaded by these two Steves. One of them, Steve Wozniak on the right in both of these pictures, contributed his genius for efficiency and elegance of design on the inside of the computer, and Steve Jobs on the left, his genius for designing what the outside of the computer should look like. In spite of his reported lack of technical brilliance or any appreciable management prowess, Steve Jobs created a phenomenal company which took the world by storm. His genius was in understanding what Michael Malone (1999) in his book “Infinite Loop” described as the “zeitgeist”, the spirit of the times.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology




Although there were business PC’s out in 1976, Apple Computer captured the imagination of the World and therefore should get credit for changing the World!


And it showed! It was this understanding of how design could capture the youth and excitement of our industry in the 70’s, that enabled Apple to make a mark and later hold onto its own in a personal computer industry that was dominated by business giant IBM. IBM computers were about business. Apple computers were about fun!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1978: Accountants rejoice at the introduction of VisiCalc, the first computerized spreadsheet program.


1979: Word processing becomes a reality as MicroPro International releases WordStar.




At first with PC’s, if you needed the computer to do something, you pretty much had to write a program to make it do that. Eventually though, some business software started to come out for PC’s, and it was exciting! I worked with both VisiCalc and WordStar. I ran the WordStar off of a 360-K floppy disk! VisiCalc played a big part in changing my life. I just couldn’t believe all of the possibilities represented by an electronic spreadsheet!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


January 26, 1983: Lotus 1-2-3 is launched and immediately overtakes VisiCalc.


But it was the software that succeeded VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2-3, that became the most popular software package in the world. Although still crude by modern standards, Lotus was more user friendly than VisiCalc, and had database and graphical chart capabilities, as well as a macro language. I wrote my first macros with Lotus! VisiCalc launched the Apple II, but Lotus was a main contributor to the success of the IBM PC. Along with the database management system dBase, introduced in 1980, Lotus dominated the business market for close to a decade.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Early 1990’s: Windows and Excel gradually gain in popularity. Some technical setbacks on a version of Lotus cause delays which Excel takes advantage of.


That is, until Microsoft came along! Excel, which eventually overpowered Lotus, added pivot tables, compatibility with data from other Microsoft applications, and a macro language that eventually was replace by a full-fledged object oriented programming language called Visual Basic for Applications, one of many flavors of Visual Basic. I have been programming in various flavors of Visual Basic for 26 years! Visual Basic itself is stand alone, while the various applications in the Microsoft Office Suite host Visual Basic for Applications. All of the languages are very similar and use the same syntax, but the main differences among the various Microsoft application VBA’s is in the objects each language has to deal with.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1983: Apple’s Lisa was the first personal computer with a GUI. It also featured a drop-down menu and icons. It flopped but eventually evolved into the Macintosh.


1985: Microsoft announced Windows, its response to Apple’s GUI.


As we headed into the 80’s, computer innovations increased geometrically, due to the increasing numbers of people working with the new technologies. The slides that follow itemize some of the highlights of this explosion of technology, and bring us up to 2015! I hope you have enjoyed this trip through time with me! If you have any questions about anything in here, be sure to let me know! Have a great week!




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


Late 1970’s – Early 1980’s: Current Open Source software movement.


1985: The first dot-com domain name was registered on March 15, to Symbolics Computer Company, a small Massachusetts computer manufacturer, registered


1985: The term computer virus, was coined by Fred Cohen.


1986: Compaq brought the Deskpro 386 to market. Its 32-bit architecture provided as speed comparable to mainframes.


1990: Tim Berners-Lee, a researcher at CERN, the high-energy physics laboratory in Geneva, developed HyperText Markup Language (HTML), giving rise to the World Wide Web.


1993: The Pentium microprocessor advanced the use of graphics and music on PCs.


1994: PCs became gaming machines as “Command & Conquer,” “Alone in the Dark 2,” “Theme Park,” “Magic Carpet,” “Descent” and “Little Big Adventure” were among the games to hit the market.


1996: Sergey Brin and Larry Page developed the Google search engine at Stanford University.


1997: Microsoft invested $150 million in Apple, which was struggling at the time, ending Apple’s court case against Microsoft in which it alleged that Microsoft copied the “look and feel” of its operating system.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


1999: The term Wi-Fi became part of the computing language and users began connecting to the Internet without wires.


2001: Apple unveiled the Mac OS X operating system, which provided protected memory architecture and pre-emptive multi-tasking, among other benefits. Not to be outdone, Microsoft rolled out Windows XP, which had a significantly redesigned GUI.


2003: The first 64-bit processor, AMD’s Athlon 64, becames available to the consumer market.


2004: Mozilla’s Firefox 1.0 challenged Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, the dominant Web browsers. Facebook, a social networking site, was launched.


2005: YouTube, a video sharing service, was founded. Google acquired Android, a Linux-based mobile phone operating system.


2006: Apple introduced the MacBook Pro, its first Intel-based, dual-core mobile computer, as well as an Intel-based iMac. Nintendo’s ”Wii” game console hit the market.


2007: The iPhone brought many computer functions to the smartphone.


2009: Microsoft launched Windows 7, which offered the ability to pin applications to the taskbar and advanced in touch and handwriting recognition, among other features.




Week 1 – Introduction to Computing and Security Technology


2010: Apple unveiled the iPad, changing the way consumers view media and jumpstarting the dormant tablet computer segment.


2011: Google released the Chromebook, a laptop that ran the Google Chrome OS.


2012: Facebook gained 1 billion users on October 4.


2015: Apple released the Apple Watch. Microsoft released Windows 10.


Credit: Science Museum | Science & Society Picture Library


By Kim Ann Zimmermann, Live Science Contributor | September 8, 2015 04:10pm ET






Copyright Fair Use and How it Works for Online Images


A Guide to Online Images Copyright and Fair Use Laws


Hyman, Anthony, ed. Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 298.











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